Illustrated Articles

Parasites

  • There are many species of lungworm that can cause respiratory problems in dogs. Infection is acquired through either: ingestion of an intermediate host such as snails or slugs, ingestion of animals that have been infected by eating these animals or depending on the species, from an infected dog by contact with saliva, nasal discharge, or contaminated food and water bowls. Lungworms can be found throughout North America and the world with certain species seen in certain areas. Clincal signs can range from asymptomatic to tachypnea, coughing, sneezing, wheezing, respiratory distress or exercise intolerance. The degree of clinical signs is usually proportional to the strength of the dog’s immune system. Diagnosis involves history, physical exam, x-rays and organism identification through either baermann fecal examination or BAL/bronchoscopy. Treatment involves use of specific antiparasitic drugs for various lengths of time depending on type and severity of infection. Prognosis is good but re-infection can occur.

  • The bacterium that causes Lyme disease can be transmitted to dogs through the bite of an infected tick, most commonly the deer tick (black-legged tick), which is found in the midwestern and eastern United States and throughout Canada. The disease typically causes pain and swelling in the affected dog's joints along with decreased appetite and fever. The kidneys are sometimes affected, in which case the disease is often fatal. Diagnostic testing, treatment, and ways to prevent Lyme disease in your dog, including instructions for tick removal, are explained in this handout.

  • Mange is a parasitic skin disease caused by microscopic mites. Two different mange mites cause skin disease in dogs. One lives just under the surface of the skin, while the other resides deep in the hair follicles. Although both mites share similar characteristics, there are also important differences.

  • Metronidazole is given by mouth or injection and is used off-label to treat certain anaerobic bacterial and protozoal infections and gastrointestinal conditions in dogs, cats, and other animals. Give as directed. Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, regurgitation, decreased appetite, tiredness, and drooling. Do not use in pets that are allergic to it, are debilitated, or are pregnant or nursing. If a negative reaction occurs, contact your veterinarian.

  • Milbemycin oxime + afoxolaner is a heartworm disease preventive that also treats certain internal parasites and controls fleas and ticks in dogs. It is also used off-label to treat mite infestations in dogs. This combination drug is given by mouth as a flavored chew tablet. Certain dog breeds are more sensitive to milbemycin oxime than others; your veterinarian will advise you on the safety of milbemycin oxime use in your dog. If you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately.

  • Milbemycin oxime + lufenuron is a heartworm disease preventive that also treats internal parasites (e.g., whipworms, hookworms, and roundworms) and controls flea populations in dogs. Milbemycin oxime + lufenuron is given by mouth as a flavored chew tablet. At prescribed doses, this medication is well-tolerated; when used off-label at higher doses for treating mites, side effects have been observed. Your veterinarian will advise you on the safety of milbemycin oxime + lufenuron use in your dog. If you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately.

  • Milbemycin oxime + lufenuron + praziquantel is a heartworm disease preventive that also treats certain internal parasites and controls fleas in dogs. This combination medication is given by mouth as a flavored chew tablet. At prescribed doses, this medication is well-tolerated. Certain dog breeds are more sensitive to milbemycin than others; your veterinarian will advise you on the safety of milbemycin use in your dog. If you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately.

  • Milbemycin oxime + praziquantel is a heartworm disease preventive that also controls tapeworms, hookworms, roundworms, and whipworms in dogs. It is given by mouth as a flavored chew tablet and must be given with a meal to ensure adequate absorption. At prescribed doses, this medication is well-tolerated. Your veterinarian will advise you on the safety of this combination product’s use in your dog. If you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately.

  • Milbemycin oxime + spinosad is a heartworm disease preventive that also controls hookworms, roundworms, whipworms, and fleas in dogs. Milbemycin oxime + spinosad is given by mouth as a flavored chew tablet. At prescribed doses, this medication is well-tolerated. Your veterinarian will advise you on the safety of this product’s use in your dog. If you suspect an overdose or an adverse reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately.

  • Feline miliary dermatitis is a skin condition that typically results from an underlying allergic reaction, most commonly to fleabites. An affected cat will have a very itchy rash and may lick, bite, and scratch at the affected skin, quickly progressing to small lesions with scabs on them. The offending allergen must be removed for long-term resolution.